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Plyometrics for Youth Soccer

I’ve previously talked about the importance of preparing for plyometrics. Here is a quick recap of the process:

Getting athletes ready for plyometrics

I cannot stress enough the importance of preparing properly. You will achieve greater gains if you have a solid foundation. Not only do the basics allow you to build a better structure, they also assist in injury prevention (1). You would not build a house without a solid foundation, and you would not learn to drive by racing. In the same way, jumping straight into plyometrics without preparation is likely to have dissatisfying results.

It is easy to extend the metaphor.

Building a foundation is learning to stabilize in the different positions of a plyometric movement.

Driving starts off with you moving very slowly, then as your ability improves you can drive faster. Plyometrics are the same, and your athletes need to learn the movement slowly before they can add speed.

Besides strength training, plyometrics are one the most valuable training methods for our athletes. They have a wide range of performance benefits (2):

  • Improved sprinting
  • Increased jumping
  • Enhanced endurance
  • Reduced injuries

Another reason I find plyometrics so valuable for youth soccer players is their accessibility, which makes it easier for coaches to implement them during a warm-up.

You can also get more dynamic with them by combining multiple plyometric movements into 1 drill. For example, here is Peak Condition athlete Brittany Persaud, a Guyana soccer national team player, getting after a 1xLeg depth drop + heiden.

I consider both drills above to be advanced because they involve multiple planes of movement (vertical and lateral) and high to very-high eccentric demands or landing stress. In a full plyometric exercise, the ground reaction force — the amount of force the ground exerts back on your body — can be 7 times your bodyweight. That is a lot of load to absorb quickly and repetitively, and to make sure your athletes are ready for these kinds of advanced drills, you should take them through a system of progression based on the training effect.

PlyometricTrainingEffectModel

The training effect model lets us know exactly what attribute an athlete is training and how to prepare them for more stressful drills.

It can be tempting to skip phases 1-3, but remember that it is your foundation. You may not need to spend more than one training session on them, but it is important to verify that you are building on a foundation of concrete, and not of sand.

Higher phases are more complex and elicit greater landing stress, but are not always what an athlete needs. If starting strength needs development, Jumps + Pause may be the most valuable. On the other hand, if you have an upcoming match and want to avoid soreness, Box Jumps would be a great choice, as they limit the eccentric demand which causes soreness.

The training effect model is the first step in deciding where an athlete should start, but doesn’t point specifically to which movement they should start with. For example, Jumps to Box could be 1 foot or 2, a forward Jump or a side-to-side jump. There are two primary variables you should use to select an appropriate movement.

Direction and number of legs (1 or 2).

For directional progression we use this model:

Directional

When determining 1 or 2 legs we suggest using our stability circuits to determine if an athlete is ready for single leg plyometrics.

Because some of us are more visual, we have 2 videos showing possible progressions.

The entire progression of our training effect model:

How you can create progressions from one phase of our training effect model by changing direction and number of legs:

The second video is a better representation of what we use for youth soccer players (11-16 yrs) compared to the first video. We want to expose them to a myriad of stressors (directional and 1 or 2 legs) while keeping them within their ability to move proficiently and powerfully.

I often see young soccer players using the highest levels of the training effect model, but only with 2 legs and vertical movement. There’s nothing inherently wrong with doing that, but it’s likely that the intended training effect is not being achieved due to poor movement or too much eccentric stress. In other words, it is not doing what they think it is doing for them.

We’ve found that youth athletes need a few years of experience before using phases 4 and 5, but can still gain the benefits of plyometrics using phases 1-3. Using the additional variables of direction and number of legs provides nearly endless options for complexity and intensity in those first 3 phases — the only limit is your creativity.

The final variable is the number of reps and sets. Besides phase 1, all reps should be under 8 and most of the time under 6. Keeping rep ranges below 6 allows for maximal output for rep. It’s important to realize plyometrics are not designed to be aerobic. In fact, they are the exact opposite, anaerobic. The only case when that is not true is during aerobic plyometrics, but that is an article for another day. Simply put, if you are breathing hard and doing plyometrics your reps are too high, or rest is too short.

Phase 1 is still primarily a learning phase and not a stress phase, which allows for higher volume. Sets will be highly variable (between 1-6) depending on the athlete’s previous exposure. A good general rule is to start low and increase 1-2 set each week for 4 weeks.

Recap:

  • Prepare your athletes for plyometrics
  • Determine appropriate phase for them using the training effect model
  • Add directional changes to the phase
  • Progress to 1 leg movements
  • Increase number of sets
  • Re-assess, and return to step 2

The goal of plyometrics is to become more powerful and efficient. Using phases that are too advanced will lead to a breakdown in mechanics. The loss of mechanics means you lose the intended training effect and won’t develop power and movement efficiency. When in doubt use a lower phase and maintain high-quality movement.

A quick side note on terminology. Traditionally, jumps = 2 legs and hops = 1 leg. We’ve found that most of our athletes view a hop as “a less intensive jump,” instead of a 1 leg jumping action. Consequently, we call them 1xleg jumps.

By |April 6th, 2016|Athletic performance, Peak Condition, Uncategorized, youth soccer|Comments Off on Plyometrics for Youth Soccer

Agility is more than physical

During my soccer career, I always wanted to increase my agility. I wanted to win every 50/50 ball to the point where I didn’t refer to them as 50/50’s. In my mind, it was my ball to lose, not a coin toss. The mental shift may have contributed something to helping improve my agility, but in reality, I was only consciously training change-of-direction (COD). There is a second component to agility, though, and it wasn’t until college that I actively pursued training it.

Before we go on, I want to define agility and change-of-direction.

Change of direction (COD): The ability to change initial direction to a predetermined location.

Agility: The ability to change direction or velocity in response to a stimulus.

Both involve changing direction, but agility adds a mental element, as it’s your overall ability to react to the unknown. Great players excel at reading the movements of other player and quickly determining what to do next. Most of the time agility is viewed as a defensive ability, but for this example you should watch Messi use his agility to meg these defenders, since it is much more exciting than watching defensive highlight videos.

Clearly Messi isn’t just guessing where to place the ball. He anticipates and then reacts based on the defender’s position.

There is plenty of literature to suggest that agility and COD are different skills (1,2,3). This diagram does a good job at showing how the two are related:

Agility definition

To maximize sports performance you need change of direction, but inevitably want agility. Early in my soccer career all my training was devoted to COD drills, sprinting from one know point to another. I did get faster at COD, but the best players also have high levels of perceptual cognitive speed (PCS), and only training COD will not improve it.

PCS sound a little too cerebral for an article that’s so far been about megging defenders. Instead of PCS we will use mental ability, which is really a player’s ability to “read” the game.

In fact, faster COD does not predict the best players, but agility may. In my favorite example, Australian football players were split into two groups based on the previous year’s personal performance, high performing (HP) and lower performing (LP) (3). The HP players were 5% faster during agility tests but not faster during COD test.

What really separated the groups was not how quickly they could run, but how quickly they concluded which direction they needed to cut.

What makes up mental ability?

Components of Agility

Modified from: Nimphius, Sophia. “Increasing Agility.” High Performance Training for Sports. 2014: Human Kinetics, n.d. 185-97. Print.

We see an example of mental ability in action in this group of elite youth soccer players, who were 12% more accurate in anticipated passing direction than sub-elite players during game play. Anticipation allows you to be in the right place at the right time because you know where the ball is going.

It’s tempting to believe that these agile athletes simply have faster reactions in general. Fortunately that has been tested for, and elite soccer players are not faster than inexperienced players when testing reaction time using flashing circles (5). This suggests that agility and accuracy is learned, not genetic or predetermined.

The real question is should you be focusing on COD or mental ability?

Most of your training time should still be spent on COD. Most young athletes are nowhere near as strong or as fast as they could be, so training their physical abilities will almost always have a high potential for growth. Most likely you’re already working on COD though, with conditioning drills, playing, plyometrics and strength training. Mental ability training can be incorporated alongside traditional COD training, and by training both at once you can start unlocking your athletes’ full potential.

Here are 2 ways you can start addressing mental ability.

Physical drill:

Instead of only used traditional line drills for conditioning, incorporate reactive directional elements. In the example below you will sprint 5 yards and then react at the green dot to a coach or teammate passing the ball left or right. It should feel like a hard sprint with one decisive cut to the ball.

Agility Drill

Mental:

I’d use the drill above as a teaching opportunity to teach you how to read body position. Nearly any drill you already do can be altered to improve metal ability if it involves teaching an athlete where to look and what to look for. In this drill you want your athletes to focus on the coach’s hips as they prepare to kick. If they are only watching the ball, they will only be training how to fall for fakes on the field.

With both mental and physical components it’s essential that the drills require you to react to sport specific movements. Simply pointing a hand to cue a reaction won’t help a soccer player read an opponent. You can use hand pointing to teach how to cut and turn, but that is training COD, not mental ability to read soccer specific cues.

Despite a long name, perceptual cognitive speed (our mental ability) is simple to implement by adjusting some of your classic conditioning drills to add a reactive element that is sport specific. Ideally the drills are done at the beginning of practice, when athletes are mentally sharp.

Adding specific coaching cues about where an athlete should look or what to look for is another way to integrate mental ability into drill you already use.

By incorporating the mental aspect of agility into regular practices, players will improve faster and start feeling more confident on the field.

By |March 30th, 2016|Peak Condition, Training, youth soccer|Comments Off on Agility is more than physical

Getting ready for plyometrics

In a previous post, we talked about incorporating plyometrics into a youth soccer training session. The value of plyometrics is well established even in youth soccer, with increases in sprint speed, kick velocity, jumping and endurance (yo-yo intermediate test) performance. Today we are going to take a deeper look at how to prepare your athletes for plyometrics.

In nearly all cases athletes need a few sessions to learn positions and movement sequencing before using plyometrics. Less experienced athletes will spend more time practicing landing and jumping positions, but once it is controlled, then movement sequencing becomes the focus. For example, you may have them practicing a plyometric movement without the explosive effort. Before we get ahead of ourselves here are our prerequisites to explosive plyometrics.

Prerequisites:

1- Athlete understands landing & takeoff positions

2- Athlete can control positions under stress

We’ve found that using proprioceptive (balance) and activational training into a warm-up helps athletes master both prerequisites faster, as they teach athletes to position their body for optimal stability and strength. It also has the bonus of helping to reduce ankle injuries for youth soccer players.

We’ll be referring to these videos through this article, so please take a moment to watch both.

Teaching the correct knee position is the primary focus of the basic stability drills. As a valgus knee position (knees collapsing in) is the most common movement error.

Simply put, when you see knees collapse in, think increased rate of injury and poor performance. The stability circuits allow an athlete to learn proper positioning with low levels of complexity and stress, which makes learning easier. As the movement improves, you can increase complexity for the same pattern or similar patterns.

Using the same pattern allow us as coaches to refer to the simple exercise when teaching a progressed drill.  This process of applying skills learned previously to skills we are trying to coach now is called coaching context. As we get into more complex movements, coaching context is an invaluable tool for correcting athletes without confusing or frustrating them.

The videos above are full of opportunities for building coaching context, and you will not want to miss them. For example, if our athlete is having trouble with the Split Squat (complex), we would ask them to remember how it felt performing the ½ kneel Abd. Brace (regressed), and to try and replicate that feeling. Since the two exercises are based on the same form in a different context (kneeling vs. standing), remembering the simpler version should help correct body position in the more complex version.

Learning to jump and land correctly is all about position. Take the concepts of body position learned during the stability circuits and apply them to your athletes’ landing and jumping position by building coaching context.

Once the context is created, and basic positions are established, we move the focus to the second prerequisite, adding stress. The addition of stress or complexity lets us know if the athlete can perform a movement without having 100% of their attention directed on it.

In short, is the position automatic yet?

The basic stability video starts using this principle during the last exercise, Spit Squat + Rotation. In this example, the goal is to maintain knee position while adding movement to another part of the body, which adds stress.

Standing with both legs on the pitch and rotating your upper body is an early step in the progression that leads to full plyometrics. If an athlete is struggling with anything in our basic stability video, there is no way they are ready for plyometrics yet. On the other hand, if they nailed it all we need to progress and add more stress and complexity.

The next step should be something similar to what you saw in our progressive stability video. Our example gives a good view of progressing all the way to practicing movement sequencing (1xLeg 1/4 Squat Pause + Hop). Remember, movement sequencing is the practice of a plyometric without the explosive intent. If sequencing and position look good, then you probably have an athlete who is ready for plyometrics.

Here is a quick recap of the process.

Getting athletes ready for plyometrics

  1. Learn positions through stability circuits.
  2. Add a little complexity and see if the learning knee position is still there.
  3. Add stress/complexity as in progressive stability.
  4. Evaluate movement timing and proficiency (sequencing) for a specific plyometric exercise.
  5. Start using plyometrics.

 

By |March 21st, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Getting ready for plyometrics

Faster Soccer Players

Nearly every coach or athlete we train wants to get faster, and rightly so. Speed means a player can be first to the ball, out run a backline, or catch a forward. We all value speed, the key is to understand how we develop faster athletes.

In 2015 Rumpf et al. gave a great meta-analysis of which methods produce the best sprint performance. As expected, Sprint Technique and Resisted Sprinting produced the greatest gains. However, non-specific training (strength training, power training, and plyometrics) also improved sprinting performance.

Do this — Implement these 3 components to start developing faster players:

  • Technique work

For soccer players, we build these drills into their warm-up for sprint technique work.

  • Plyometrics

Incorporate a progressive plyometric program into the end of a warm-up. For early teens, start with a total of 60 jumps per leg twice a week (HERE is an example), then add 12 jumps per leg each week for 6 weeks.

  • High-Speed Sprinting

We also implement 3-10 (10-20 yards) max speed sprints 1-2 x week. The goal is not aerobic conditioning, but rather max efforts with full recovery. This emphasizes force production (exploding off the ground) and technique while avoiding fatigue.

These 3 elements are a great start for developing faster players. I’ve chosen to highlight them because they do not require any extra equipment and can be implemented today. However, this is only the beginning in terms of maximizing athletic development. A well-rounded program also includes strength training, power training, and energy systems development.

By |March 11th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Faster Soccer Players

Strength Training for Youth Soccer

Previously I’ve talked about methods for developing faster youth soccer players while training on the field. In short, we use three primary tools — running technique, plyometrics, and high-speed sprints — all of which are fantastic at improving an athlete’s speed. Off the field, we have a few more great methods that you can use to improve athleticism and reduce injuries.

I find that the most valuable off-field method to improve long-term athletic development is a well-constructed strength and conditioning training program.

Here are two strength and conditioning programs I’ve created for youth soccer players.

Athletic training exists as a continuum, with max speed training on one side, and max strength training on the other. Exercises like plyometrics, max speed sprints, and bodyweight work fall on the speed side. On the strength side, the best example is lifting something heavy.

Speed and strength work complement one another. I like to think of it as a delicious peanut butter and jelly sandwich: you need both in the right amount. If you slather on too much peanut butter and skimp on the jelly, suddenly all you have is a peanut butter sandwich. Add a little more peanut butter on top, and it is still just a peanut butter sandwich.

The point is that a peanut butter sandwich does not need more peanut butter to achieve its full potential. It needs jelly. In the same way, youth athletes who are working on speed all day do not need more speed training. What they can benefit from is strength training (our delicious jelly).

Strength and conditioning programs work well because youth athletes spend all their time on the max speed side of the continuum. Additional training should work to complement that instead of just adding to it.

Here are the steps a youth athlete would take during a strength training program.

  • Learn to create and release tension
  • Learn primary movement patterns and their application to sport
  • Progressive performance development

Learn to create and release tension-

Running down a field, kicking a soccer ball, or jumping up for a header all involve creating and releasing tension. It is a basic skill all of us learn. Remember when you were a teenager and stood in front of the mirror flexing your biceps? That is an example of creating tension, flexing, and releasing it.

I use this same concept for our athletes, but in a more functional way. For example, this is a bear crawl isometric hold, were you learn to create tension through shoulders, core, and hips — a concept an athlete should master before adding complexity. The basic skill of creating and releasing tension is foundational to athletic performance.

Learn primary movements and their application to sport-

The eventual goal of strength training is to get stronger, but before that can happen you need to know how to move. Learning primary movements takes time and repetition. Think of it like learning to drive a car. Many of us start in a parking lot, quiet street, or — as I did — on a desolate country road in Kings Valley. All of us learn new skill better when we do not have distractions or added stress. Strength training is the same, and initially, you need to remove stress and distractions (weight) to get the results you want.

Younger athletes need more time with low intensity training (steps 1 & 2) as they learn to control their muscles. Repetition during this step will create faster connections between a young athlete’s muscles and brain. Once an athlete has solidified steps 1 and 2 then they can increase training intensity.

Progressive performance development-

At this point, an athlete is ready for what most people view as a strength training program. The athlete knows how to create and release tension, has a high level of movement efficiency without weight, and is now ready for added weight.

Now you have a teenage who can safely flex their biceps in the rear view mirror while driving around the city during rush hour. Impressive!

Unfortunately, many personal trainers try to start here.

When steps 1 and 2 are skipped, parents and coaches become hesitant of strength training because they fear the intensity may be too high or progressive. I’ve seen this on many occasions, and it is hard to watch. Young athletes are not little adults that recover quickly. They need a qualified personal trainer who can provide age-appropriate training. If they are not getting that, you need to find a new trainer before your current one does more harm than good for your athlete.

On the other hand, many parents and coaches hear about the process of low-intensity training and believe it is best to wait until their players are older and can train hard. The problem is the athlete still needs to go through steps 1 and 2, regardless of their age.

The idea that you can wait for an athlete to hit 15 or so and just start loading them up is wrong. In fact, a recent review showed that starting athletes during pre-adolescent (11-13 years old) leads to better motor control throughout their lives. Meaning, a 15-year-old who started strength training at 14 will be ready to train hard sooner than a peer without that experience. You can see this in the graph below, which shows the trajectory of neuromuscular performance based on when integrative neuromuscular training (INT) started.

Developmental Stage

Full article here.

If you are not sure where to start download one of our age-specific strength and conditioning programs I’ve created for youth soccer players; or contact me directly.

Regardless how a youth soccer athlete starts their strength training make sure it’s an age appropriate plan. The eventual goal is to get stronger, faster and more resilient but they need to know a few things before heavy weight’s are part of it.

 

By |March 11th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Strength Training for Youth Soccer

Prevent Ankle Injuries in Youth Soccer

Ankle injuries can sideline even the best players with little warning. Soccer, in particular, demands a lot from the ankles, and the typical risk of injury is high. The best way to reduce that risk is with a few preventative measures.

Today I want to talk about how you can implement some of these measures with your players.

Movement proficiency is the foundation of injury prevention. We use the analogy of door hinges to explain how an athlete’s movement pattern relates to their resilience. If a door frame is square, the hinges can move largely stress-free, and will last a very long time. If the door frame is not square, the hinges are put under undue stress and break down. If an athlete does not move well, they will eventually break down.

There are many approaches to improving movement, however as a soccer coach you probably don’t have time for many of them. Here is one you can easy implement on the field.

Proprioceptive training

Proprioceptive training, or stability training, is designed to help an athlete understand where their body is in relationship to space. It has been shown to be highly effective in reducing ankle injuries — particularly for those with a history of ankle sprains. Use this one of these stability circuits on the field to help your athletes stay on their feet this season.

Basic Stability:

Progressive Stability:

By |March 4th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Prevent Ankle Injuries in Youth Soccer

Nutrition for performance

As coaches, we do everything we can to improve an athlete’s performance during training. Unfortunately, we leave a lot to chance if we don’t look at factors outside of training, too. I’ve touched on the importance of sleep, academic stress, and body composition (add to blog and link) in the past, and today I wanted to dive deeper into nutrition.

Talking about nutrition can quickly become a complex topic. We want to avoid getting bogged down in recommendations of so many grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Instead, we want to provide athletes with a few useful, usable guidelines. That way they don’t have to break out the calculator for meal time, and can save their mental focus for the field.

More is less: give athletes one aspect of nutrition to improve at a time.

First — Stress the importance of eating real, whole food before and after training.

Second — Focus on their carb intake. It is their primary fuel source. At least 70% of their energy used while training comes from stored (previously eaten) carbohydrates. In fact, carbohydrate fueling during competition has been shown to improve time to fatigue by 37%.

Healthy eating does relate to body size, but instead of using grams per kilogram, we will use an athlete’s fist, palm, or thumb size to prescribe the amount of food they should consume. It’s not as precise, but it’s more useful for most athletes.

Pre-Training (1-2 hours before):

1-2 fists of carbohydrates (fruit, oatmeal, potatoes, rice, pasta)

During:

8-16 oz water, electrolytes, and possibly carbohydrates.

Post-Training (1-2 hours after):

Again, we are looking for a well-balanced meal of real, whole foods.

1-2 fists of carbohydrates

1 palm of protein

2 fists of vegetables

2 thumbs size healthy fat (avocado, nuts, olives, olive oil, coconut oil)

 

Share this image with your athletes to help them understand what a well-balanced meal is.

Healthy portions

-Picture from www.precisionnutrition.com/calorie-control-guide-inforgraphic

 

By |February 26th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Nutrition for performance

Athletic Preparation

There are many different methods that athletes and coaches use to prepare for training sessions, and it’s important to understand how implementing even small changes in your routine can help you get more out of each session. One of the easiest ways to improve your warm-up is to remove prolonged static stretching, as it will reduce explosive performance; or perhaps more surprisingly is how a bout of stretching can reduce balance and reaction times. Although it can be a difficult habit to break, taking static stretching out of a warm-up is a necessary first step.

Next, the key is to understand that each method used will have a particular effect or consequence. In the previous example, reducing power production, balance and reaction time is not ideal for high levels of athletic performance. Instead, the goal should be to increase body temperature and joint lubrication, engage the nervous system to a greater degree, groove movement patterns, and enhance sport specific skills.

Here is how we build a warm-up to target those goals.

  • Foam Rolling (tissue quality work)
  • Bracing (Activation)
  • Dynamic Mobility (video below)
  • Proprioceptive Training (Balance)
  • Movement-Based Techniques
  • Thermogenics (Movement)

Dynamic mobility series for soccer:

These are our most commonly used methods to prepare our athletes for training sessions, but don’t view it as an exhaustive list. This order is also how we typically program, but it too isn’t set in stone. We use this order because it provides structure for us to progress our warm-up.

We start with foam rolling and bracing, which are less complex, to give athletes time to mentally prepare for the upcoming training. We’ve seen that giving athletes time to socialize is valuable when there are clear expectations. They can use this time to mentally transition the athletes’ focus from their lives to their sport.

Dynamic mobility and proprioceptive training have higher levels of complexity and require much more focus. We want to avoid starting here: it leads to lack of focus and poor carryover to athletic preparation, because athletes haven’t had time to prepare mentally.

Movement-based techniques often involve practicing new movement patterns like running, jumping, or landing mechanics, and consequently take a considerable amount of focus. As this point, we increase the intensity of the warm-up, which is why it fits well after the dynamic mobility and proprioceptive training.

Thermogenics is a broad category, and we tend to use small-sided games, passing drills, or sprints. The key here is to use thermogenic work to quickly ramp up both intensity and specificity. We isolate a part of our sport to use as a warm-up and the warm-up transitions seamlessly into training.

You might not always have the time or the equipment needed for all six components, but you’ll establish better long-term athletic development by using as many as possible. Keep in mind that weather may influence the duration of an individual component. More time on thermogenic’s may be need during cooler weather, for example.

Getting athletes to buy into a new routine can sometimes be the real challenge for us. The most efficient method is to educate them: show them how the warm-up routine is an integrated part of their training, inseparable from the session. Additionally, creating a flow that clearly progresses an athlete to the state of readiness required for each training session will let them “feel” the value.

The flow should also incorporate a progression from general to sport specific — we will use soccer here as an example. Proprioceptive training could start with single leg rooting drills and then progress to juggling or volleying. Movement based techniques could have a similar progression, beginning with general running technique, and continuing to a sprint ending with a touch(s) on the ball. Be creative with how you move from general to sport specific elements within each of the six warm-up components.

Three running technique drills:

The best warm-ups are intentional and to the point. An effective, targeted warm-up will make your training sessions more efficient and reduce your risk of injury by addressing muscular imbalances, improving joint centration, and increasing muscular temperature. Simply, jogging and stretching have a place, but if you want to take your training seriously then there are better options.

By |February 19th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Athletic Preparation

Athlete Injury Prevention

PeakCondition-Infographic-Injury

By |February 8th, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Athlete Injury Prevention

Plyometric Progression

PlyometricProgression

 

During cyclic jumps, participants were motivated to maximize the ratio between vertical height or horizontal distance and ground contact time.

For acyclic drills, participants were motivated during each jump to achieve maximal intensity vertical height and horizontal distance.

 

Reference:

Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players

 

By |February 2nd, 2016|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Plyometric Progression